All you wanted to know about Gastrointestinal

Dr. Manish Joshi is a Consultant Surgical Gastroenterologist, GI Oncologist and Advanced Laparoscopic Surgeon at the BGS Global Hospitals, Bangalore. He had earlier served as Head of Surgical Gastroenterology services at St. John’s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore for almost 3 years. 

What is Intestinal Obstruction?

Digested food particles must travel through 25 feet or more of intestines as part of normal digestion. These digested wastes are constantly in motion. However, intestinal obstruction can put a stop to this. An intestinal obstruction occurs when your small or large intestine is blocked. The blockage can be partial or total, and it prevents passage of fluids and digested food. If intestinal obstruction happens, food, fluids, gastric acids, and gas build up behind the site of the blockage. If enough pressure builds up, your intestine can rupture, leaking harmful intestinal contents and bacteria into your abdominal cavity. This is a life-threatening complication. 

Causes of Intestinal Obstruction?

The exact cause of inflammatory bowel disease remains unknown. Previously, diet and stress were suspected, but now doctors know that these factors may aggravate but don’t cause IBD. One possible cause is an immune system malfunction.

Mechanical obstructions

Mechanical obstructions are when something physically blocks your intestine. In the small intestine, this can be due to: 

  • adhesions, which consist of fibrous tissue that can develop after any abdominal or pelvic surgery or after severe inflammation 
  • volvulus, or twisting of the intestines 
  • intussusception, a “telescoping,” or pushing, of one segment of intestine into the next section 
  • malformations of the intestine, often in newborns, but can also occur in children and teens 
  • tumors within your small intestine 
  • gallstones, although they rarely cause obstructions 
  • swallowed objects, especially in children 
  • hernias, which involve a portion of your intestine protruding outside of your body or into another part of your body 
  • inflammatory bowel disease, such asCrohn’s disease 

Nonmechanical Obstruction

Your small and large intestines normally work in a coordinated system of movement. If something interrupts these coordinated contractions, it can cause a functional intestinal obstruction. This is generally known as a nonmechanical obstruction. If it’s a temporary condition, it’s referred to as anileus. It’s called a pseudo-obstruction if it becomes chronic, or long term. 

Causes for ileus include: 

  • abdominal or pelvic surgery 
  • infections, such as gastroenteritis orappendicitis 
  • some medications, includingopioid pain medications 
  • electrolyte imbalances 

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be caused by: 

  • Parkinson’s disease,multiple sclerosis, and other nerve and muscle disorders 
  • Hirschsprung’s disease, a disorder in which there is a lack of nerves in sections of the large intestine 
  • disorders that cause nerve injury, such asdiabetes mellitus 
  • hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid gland 

Symptoms of Intestinal Obstruction

Intestinal obstruction causes a wide range of uncomfortable symptoms, including

Severe Bloating

Abdominal Pain

Decreased Appetite

Nausea

Vomiting

Constipation

Complications of Intestinal Obstruction

Treatment is essential to reduce complications such as: 

  • Dehydration 
  • Electrolyte imbalances 
  • Perforation, or a hole that forms in your intestines, which leads to infections 
  • Kidney Failure 

If the obstruction is preventing blood from getting to a segment such:

  • Infection 
  • Tissue death 
  • Intestinal perforation 
  • Sepsis, a life-threatening blood infection 
  • Multiple organ failure 

How Intestinal Obstruction is diagnosed?

  • Physical exam.Your doctor will ask about your medical history and your symptoms. He or she will also do a physical exam to assess your situation. The doctor may suspect intestinal obstruction if your abdomen is swollen or tender or if there’s a lump in your abdomen. He or she may listen for bowel sounds with a stethoscope. 
  • X-ray.To confirm a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, your doctor may recommend an abdominal X-ray. However, some intestinal obstructions can’t be seen using standard X-rays. 
  • Computerized tomography (CT).A CT scan combines a series of X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images. These images are more detailed than a standard X-ray, and are more likely to show an intestinal obstruction. 
  • Ultrasound.When an intestinal obstruction occurs in children, ultrasound is often the preferred type of imaging. In youngsters with an intussusception, an ultrasound will typically show a “bull’s-eye,” representing the intestine coiled within the intestine. 
  • Air or barium enema.An air or barium enema is basically enhanced imaging of the colon that may be done for certain suspected causes of obstruction. During the procedure, the doctor will insert air or liquid barium into the colon through the rectum. For intussusception in children, an air or barium enema can actually fix the problem most of the time, and no further treatment is needed. 

Treatment

Treatment for intestinal obstruction depends on the cause of your condition, but generally requires hospitalization. 

Gastrointestinal Surgery FAQ's

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Ask the Doctor

PreOp-Instructions

  • ON THE DAY BEFORE SURGERY
    Proceed with normal activities, normal diet & Shower
  • AFTER MIDNIGHT BEFORE THE DAY OF SURGERY
    Do not eat or drink anything, including water, candy, gum, mints, Brushing teeth is okay
  • ON THE DAY OF SURGERY
    Do not eat or drink anything Brushing teeth is okay Shower if you did not shower the night before
  • These are typical instructions. Your instructions by your surgeon or doctor may vary.

These are typical instructions. Your instructions by your surgeon or doctor may vary.

PostOp-Instructions

  • ON THE DAY BEFORE SURGERY
    Proceed with normal activities, normal diet & Shower
  • AFTER MIDNIGHT BEFORE THE DAY OF SURGERY
    Do not eat or drink anything, including water, candy, gum, mints, Brushing teeth is okay
  • ON THE DAY OF SURGERY
    Do not eat or drink anything Brushing teeth is okay Shower if you did not shower the night before
  • These are typical instructions. Your instructions by your surgeon or doctor may vary.

These are typical instructions. Your instructions by your surgeon or doctor may vary.

Key Benefits of Laparoscopic / Robotics Surgery

Key Hole Surgery

No Bigger Cuts

Shorter Hospital Stay

Safe & Stress Free Surgery

Short Stay Surgery

Dedicated Doctors

Best-in-Class Process for Best-in-Class Patient Experience

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Consulting

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Dr. Manish Joshi is the Best Gastrointestinal surgeon in Bangalore & India. He is an expert in Advanced Laparoscopic & Robotic Surgical Techniques. His motto is ‘Patient comes first” View Profile.

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Dr Manish Joshi conducts consultation at below locations

BGS Gleneagles Global Hospitals

Apollo Clinic

  • Consulting : 06:00 PM – 07:00 PM (Tues/Thur/Sat)
  • 673/A, Opp. Shriram Samruddhi , Varthur Road, Kundalahalli gate signal, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560066
  • www.apolloclinic.com

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